There are many types of cases that can be filed in our legal system. We also have a general civil system and a criminal court system.
Criminal cases involve enforcing public codes of behavior, which are codified in the laws of the state or in the laws of the country. In criminal cases, the government prosecutes individuals for violating laws. Punishment in criminal cases can include fines, community service, probation, or prison.
Civil cases involve conflicts between people or between institutions or businesses. Civil cases include lawsuits for money, landlord/tenant matters, breach of contract claims, and cases where one person is trying to make someone else do something (for example, sell some property) or stop doing something (for example, stop foreclosure).
Family cases are a type of civil case, but they generally involve issues between or concerning spouses, parents, and children. Family courts handle a wide variety of cases involving domestic matters.